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Jean Chall developed a theory of Stages of Reading after publishing the Carnegie Research Report in 1967 on the “Great Debate” examining research on whether reading should get taught through decoding or meaning making.

The theory, based heavily on Piaget's Stages of Development, concludes:

  • Reading development happens in stages
  • Reading is always problem solving
  • You move through stages in an environment
  • You can measure different stages of reading
  • Stages are successive, grow in complexity, and can stagnate
  • Reading has an affective element

(Chall, 1976)

The Stages

  • Stage 0. Prereading: Birth to Age 6.
  • Stage 1. Initial Reading, or Decoding, Stage: Grades 1-2, Ages 6-7.
  • Stage 2. Confirmation, Fluency, Ungluing from Print: Grades 2-3, Ages 7-8.6.
  • Stage 3. Reading for Learning the New: A First Step.
  • Stage 4. Multiple Viewpoints: High School, Ages 14—18
  • Stage 5. Construction and Reconstruction—A World View: College, Age 18 and Abov


stages_of_reading_development.txt · Last modified: 2022/05/31 18:30 by jgmac1106